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Flat Earth – Muslims & Christians Fell over the Edge by lack of Logic

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“They once believed the Earth was flat, if we travel any further, we will fall over the edge. Because Muhammad claimed the earth was ‘Flat in the Quran’ thousands of Muslims still believe the Earth is Flat.”

Flat Earth – Muslims & Christians Fell over the Edge by lack of Logic

Proof that the Qur’an is not a Perfect Infallible Book

Science versus the Koran

(2014)

(Revision 1:2017)

By Author

When I was a small boy in the 1950’s and early sixties, neighbours and family taught me, that when you suffer minor burns on your hands you should put butter on the burn to heal it. As a young adult years later, I learnt this old ‘wives’ tale’, was a myth born out of generations of ignorance, who faithfully practiced a belief, which they were told from parent to child was the best solution. I learnt the worst thing you can do is place butter on the burn. I was later taught, first step, place the minor burn immediately under cold water, to remove the heat, and soothe the wound. Anything more serious, you should seek medical help. Such is myth; throughout history we have been fed a diet of false knowledge. Perhaps one day, someone will say, “no do not place it under water; we have discovered a better way.” The wiser always question ideas, and search for truth, being careful not to become too obsessed with any idea. The wiser will explore new ground, new concepts, and backed by pragmatism and ahimsa methods they will when necessary adapt to change. The unwise live in a false knowledge world of their own creation, trapped by their own ignorance, prejudice, and stupidity.

Thick Face Black Heart Spear Facts

It is difficult to define the last two thousand years of history since the birth/death of Jesus Christ into exact date chronology overview cultural types of periods. Such an attempt is rough cut and is open to historian interpretation, which significantly impacts upon personal points of view and associated interest in category groups of historical events. Hence the date line ranges tabled hereunder after the Hellenistic Period are indeed rough cut, but close enough to give reality and truth some valid insight. Some period dates do naturally overlap each other as cultural learning and change is an evolutionary progressive phase that varies from country to country.

The Hellenic (776-323 B.C.) & Hellenistic Period (323-30 B.C.)

Dark Ages in Europe (c.476 A.D.-c.1000 A.D.)

The End of Ancient Rome is defined as being 476 A.D. the beginning of the ‘Dark Ages’ -the ‘Middle Ages’ but in reality, whilst historical records need some cut-off period definition with a new period start timeline guide, it must be said that such timeline is circa and is obviously over two centuries a gradual decline and change process- a societal big bang change does not just happen, except when like Pompeii the society is wiped out by a volcano or a society like Mecca is wiped out by an overwhelming ‘War Lord’ Muhammad invasion. Or when Sodom and Gomorrah was destroyed by an asteroid explosion from above, like happened in Siberia 1908.

The Dark Age Period is the age when the advancement of Ancient Greek Philosophy and Science should have progressively evolved forward, but instead was dumped by societal thinking that took a duck dive into dark fixed dogma religious cult ideology, losing all understanding of higher truth and reality. Ignorance replaced potential ascension to higher insight.

Many persons suggest the end of the Dark Ages was in the 1500’s at the beginning of the Renaissance Period said by some to have started in 1500 A.D. Certainly superstition, ignorance and fear of Apostasy, Blasphemy and Heresy did extend dark age mentality into the 1500’s and actually rolled past continuing to exist in the minds of many into the 1800’s; but in reality amongst Muslims, many Christians and Jews that dark age mentality still exists into this early 21st Century; tens of thousands of religious/cult believers are locked into fixed dogma, which rejects any proven path science that discredits holy book texts. The classic example is the theorem of evolution, which is no longer a theory, but is an evolving proven fact as more and more evidence is being found, which identifies the natural existence of the evolution process as a scientific fact, beyond all doubt.

It is difficult to understand why so many people are afraid to face the truth.

I personally would rather know the truth then live in a ‘Belief System’ of ‘False Knowledge’ founded upon Myth, Phony Propaganda and Deliberate Deceit.

There is more inner peace gained by knowing the truth than living blind faith in a lie.

Middle Ages in Europe (476 A.D.-1455 A.D.)

476 A.D. Last of the Western Roman Emperors, Romulus Augustus (c.460/461-c.500 perhaps 511 A.D.) ruled briefly (475-476) -he was deposed by Flavius Odoacer (433-493 A.D.) a soldier whom became the ‘First King of Italy’ (476-493).

476 A.D. marks the ‘Final Fall of Ancient Rome’.

The War of the Roses (1421-1487 A.D.) in Britain ends and the ‘Tudor Dynasty Begins’ thus the Middle Ages fades in Britain from 1487 as a new cultural era of thinking expands. But evil, like the thinking and behaviour of Henry the VIII th (1491-1547 A.D.) King of England (1509-1547) would continue to exist in positions of authority.

However, it was the printing of the first ‘Gutenberg Bible’ in 1455 that marks the end of the ‘Middle Ages’ as defined by ‘Blue Light Cosmic Philosophy’.

1455 became the end of copying books by hand and the beginning of printing.

Johannes Gutenberg (1398-1468 A.D.) Germany, invented a printing press with mechanical moveable type. Gutenberg was a blacksmith, goldsmith, printer and publisher.

Thus, a new age of expanding fresh ideas, innovations and discoveries rapidly evolved as science gradually took the lead over religion. And the quest for ‘Liberty’ the right to live ‘Free in Speech and Choice and Equality’ reached out permeating societies with its conviction and mission to enforce the fact that all persons are born equal in rights. The age of secular democratic government started to expand in the thinking of philosophers, scientists, freedom resistance groups and some politicians evolving into self-realisation, which expanded rapidly throughout the ‘Western World’ after July 4th, 1776 American Declaration of Independence in thirteen colonies and the French Revolution (1789-1799).  The evolving age of ‘Western Liberty’ took root.

Meanwhile ‘Anti-Freedom Apartheid Totalitarian Islam’ continued with its insane Qur’an Doctrine refusing to recognise the values of ‘Liberty’ preferring the lifestyle belief system of oppression locked into a 7th Century backward barbaric belief system which condones rape, slavery, child abuse, beheadings, stoning to death, cruelty and murder and believes that death leading to paradise is more important than life. This cancer mentality gradually evolved during the 20th Century to become the nightmare of the 21st Century more savage than the black plagues of ‘Ancient Greece’ and the ‘Dark Ages’ of Europe.

Middle Ages Summary Timeline Breakdown

Early Middle Ages – 5th to 10th Century

High Middle Ages – 11th to 13th Century

Late Middle Ages – 14th to 15th Century

Whilst Europe evolved through its barbaric timeline of violent ignorance towards enlightenment, Islam chose to live static in backward fixed dogma ignorance, refusing to evolve away from the barbaric doctrine taught in the Koran by ‘Paedophile Muhammad’. This reality became increasingly evident in the minds of those great educated persons around the globe that witnessed the dark thinking of Islam after 1776 to present day, early 21st Century.

Only Arabs that rejected the shackles of ‘Islamic Doctrine’ moved forward in wiser progressive learning.

The evil Christian Inquisition ended in 1834, but like a dog with a bone, Islam refused to let go of its violent ‘Jihad Belief System’– increase in terror reigned, spreading its Islamic horror as it gained more finance to fund its evil quest to conquer the world and destroy the right of every person to live free.

Medieval Society

The Age of ‘Medieval Society’ is about ‘British Society’ in history, it starts in 1066 with the ‘Battle of Hastings’ during the Norman Conquest of England. Ending in 1485 with the death of King Richard III at the battle of Bosworth Field during the near ending of the ‘War of the Roses’.

Renaissance Period (c.1300 A.D. – c.1700 A.D.)

A cultural movement period of education change process.

The Renaissance began in Florence Italy during the 14th Century. The French word ‘Renaissance’ translated into English means “Rebirth”. French historian Jules Michelet (1798-1874) coined the word ‘Renaissance’ using it for the first time in his work ‘Histoire de France’ dated 1855.

As to whether it is accurate enough to call the period of 1300-1700 A.D. a ‘Renaissance Period’ as a time of awakening is questionable. For this age of new enlightenment depended upon the ‘Belief System’ of the individual- their thinking and behaviour. Even today in the progressive early 21st Century of technology, societies around the globe are plagued by conflicts- battles between light and dark thinking and behaviour, battles of fixed dogma verses open minded science and philosophy. We have not yet as a ‘Global Society’ really escaped ‘Dark Age Backward Mentality’.

The evolution of art, theatre, music, science and philosophy certainly became a rebirth period after centuries of stagnation since the death of the Ancient Greeks. But in this midst of evolutionary new advancing thinking, fixed dogma attitude of countless thousands of persons, still clung desperately to ignorance and naivety. The harassment abusive, often violent plague of dark backward ‘Christian Inquisition’ attitude, blocked rapid growth in wisdom, wholesome knowledge and technology. Because of the bully nature of Abrahamic creed doctrine, founded upon the dictatorship of ‘Apostasy, Blasphemy and Heresy’ societal progress was slower than it should have been.

Ignorance governed by religious/cult dark mentality, restricted wholesome global progress. Given the great philosophical and scientific start launched by the ‘Ancient Greeks’ we in universal culture should have been united and travelling in outer space 500 years ago, …  

‘Fixed Dogma Belief Systems’ have a lot to answer for their crime of road blocking scientific and philosophical progress.

And now once again the insanity of ‘Islamic Doctrine’ governed by a 7th Century false knowledge book called the Qur’an, seeks to stop the scientific technological advance of civilization, being locked into a violent dark thinking belief system, threatening to destroy ‘Liberty’ and the potential of humanity to live in a great progressive quality of life dynamic society.

Christian Persecution Ages

Roman Pagan Persecutions of Christians Part 1

 Jesus and his Disciple/Followers (Christ 0.A.D. – Simon 74 A.D.)

Roman Pagan Persecutions of Christians Part 2

(Nero 67 A.D. – Death of St George 303 A.D.)

European Pagan Persecutions of Christians

(Nero 67 A.D.-Vikings 1000 A.D.)

Persian Pagan Persecutions of Christians

(Death of Arius 325 A.D. – Muhammad 610 A.D.)

Christian Dark Ages in Europe…later overseas (1231 A.D. -1834 A.D.)

Papal Persecution began in 1160 inspiring creation of Christian Inquisition.

Pope Alexander III born in Siena Italy (c.1100-August 30, 1181) was the Pope from 7th September 1159 until his death. He started the Papal Persecutions against any person that disagreed with Papal doctrine. He instructed the bishop of Lyons to exterminate from the face of the earth those that dared reject popery doctrine.

Pope Gregory IX established the Christian Inquisition in 1231he decided that cruel burning was the official punishment for heresy. Thus, a chain of evil Popes reigned for centuries striking terror into any person whom deliberately or inadvertently challenged ‘Papal Christian Doctrine’.

Pope Gregory IX (1145-August 22, 1241), born in Anagni, Italy died in Rome Italy. He was the Pope from 19th March 1227 until his death.

The end of the Spanish Inquisition in 1834 was the end of the Dark Age Christian Inquisition.

“…persecution, under the guise of Christianity, committed more enormities than ever disgraced the annals of paganism.” (i)

John Fox (Foxe) (1517-1587)

(i) Fox’s Book of Martyrs Chapter IV ‘Papal Persecutions’

Islamic Persecutions of Christians, Jews and all other unbelievers

 …launched by Muhammad after destruction of Mecca 630 A.D.

Still happening into present early 21st Century.

Evidence exists in volumes of information that just like the Christian Inquisition was wrong, so too are ‘True Muslims’ wrong that believe that the Qur’an/Koran is a perfect infallible book.

Religion is not adaptable. Its fixed dogma makes religion inflexible. The locked ideas taught by organised religion and cults in its creed, increases realization to the open mind- that it is inevitable; in ages to come, religion shall disintegrate and take its place in the history of false knowledge. Ideas once taught, as fact shall finally be identified as myth. A fact becomes illusion, and an illusion becomes fact.

Once upon a time, people believed the world was flat and that if you travelled too far from your home country in either direction you would eventually fall off, disappearing forever. When an odd person suggested the world was round, some people laughed, “And what stops people on the other side of the ball from falling off? He is an idiot; the world is flat, not round!” “Yes, I agree, in fact by his claim that the world is round, he is saying our religion is false. He is a heretic; and should be executed.” The mob agreed- violence, cruelty and torture followed.

This fictitious conversation is true so far as the perception, reactions and common practice behaviour patterns, which existed in ancient and medieval times. The ‘Christian Inquisition Dark Ages’ (1231-1834) was the worst behaviour period of all European history, which spread into America north and south. We as a human race are still trying to escape the evil shadows of the dark ages, we may not notice it in everyday life, but we humans have not escaped its tentacles of ignorant behaviour. We are still at risk of sliding back into the quicksand of false knowledge. As it turned out, through courageous assertive evolution, of honest evaluation of ideas, most of Western Society gradually swung away from a belief that the world is flat, to a belief that the world is round. History has proven that sometimes the one is right, and the majority is wrong. Of course, we all know the world is flat… right! -just kidding. Back on track, we now have an understanding, why people on the other side of the ball, do not fall off. You are exactly right! Gravity that’s the ticket to people staying upright. So, we have it, a once believed flat world of fact, becomes illusion. And a once suggested round world of illusion becomes fact. Things are not always what they appear to be; sometimes they turn out to be something entirely different.

Even right up to the 16th Century many great thinkers and philosophers lived their lives believing that the earth was flat, dying not knowing the truth, not recognising that the Ancient Greeks centuries earlier had identified the truth that the earth was not flat.

Most intellectuals living during the Ancient Roman Empire believed that the earth was flat. Somewhere between the decline of Ancient Greece and the rise of Ancient Rome the knowledge taught by the Ancient Greeks was temporarily lost for centuries to come.

Sliding further back into ancient and middle age history, we humans learned after we climbed out of ‘Dark Christian Backward Thinking’ during the ‘Middle Ages’ that the Ancient Greeks centuries before Jesus Christ, had started out believing the earth was flat, but later identified and taught that the earth was indeed a sphere. And Mathematicians proved it. But fool Christians followed centuries later, by idiot Muhammad, rejected the ‘Greek’ teaching and insisted that the world was flat, except for the Roman Church after Ptolemy, whom insisted the earth was round and was the fixed centre of the universe. However, true to their ignorance many Christians and Muslims clung to the idea that Earth was flat and that it was heresy, apostasy and blasphemy to claim that the world was round or that the earth was not the fixed centre of the universe; punishable often by death. Not all Christians knew the doctrine of the Roman Church, as many people could not read. Education for most was inaccurate word of mouth.

Yes, these two fanatical proselytic ‘Abrahamic Creeds’ were willing to kill any person that claimed the world was round or the world was not the centre of the universe. In other words, these two fanatical convert creeds by birth or submission, Christians and Muslims, constantly struggled to convert others from one religious faith to another; never giving up on their obsession to indoctrinate unbelievers with false knowledge and were willing to kill any person that opposed their beliefs. This dark thinking obsession, still exists amongst many Muslims today in this early 21st Century.

The Hellenic (776-323 B.C.) & Hellenistic Period (323-30 B.C.)

Our education is incomplete when we do not have an overview understanding of the ‘Ancient History of Greece’ and the great ‘Greek Philosophers, Mathematicians and Statesmen’.

During the 6th Century Pythagoras (c.570- c.500-490 BCE) a Greek Philosopher and Mathematician has been credited with first postulating that the earth was round. No evidence exists to verify that belief, but given the brilliance of Pythagoras Mathematics it is more than reasonable to believe that the starting point of believing in a round earth began with Pythagoras.

Pythagoras rejected earth as the centre of all things and stated that the centre of all things is a central fire or hearth which provides the sun with its light. As we know today using simplistic words, the sun is a hearth/fire ball of gases. Since the telescope had not yet been invented, Pythagoras, born in the Ionian Island of Samos about 570 BC, used only his instinctive automatic perception to draw the philosophical conclusion that the earth was not the centre of all things. This brings back the ‘Cosmic Question’… “Where do all ideas come from?”

Science in its infancy was still evolving with a long way to go…

For Science to evolve a Philosophy of questions and answers had to start, followed by the evolution of mathematics. Going back to the beginning of man’s early time, the discovery of fire was no doubt the beginning of Philosophy- questions and answers long before the name tag Philosophy was coined by the ‘Ancient Greeks’.

Without Mathematics, Science could not evolve; and without Philosophy, Mathematics would not have ever evolved to a Scientific Standard.

All knowledge begins with the ‘Philosophical Question’… “Why? How? When?”

“In the year of 500 BC an Ionian thinker Anaxagoras was born in the Greek town of Clazomenae. Anaxagoras became one of the earliest and probably the first teacher of philosophy in Athens.” (ii)

(ii) Source: 1988 Essay titled, ‘Arche’ published in the test pilot book ‘Blue Light’. [Clazomenae was a major Greek City of Ionian Asia Minor in a region now known as the ‘Coast of Turkey’.]

Anaxagoras (500-428 BC) believed the earth was flat.

‘Arche’ means ‘First Principle’ refer ‘Blue Light’ ‘Gaia Dictionary’ 2003 ‘test pilot’ planned for re-publication upgrade 2022 C.E.

Pythagoras, founder of an ‘Esoteric School of Philosophy’, incorrectly believed that ‘Arche’ was numbers, but this was understandable given his skills with Mathematics. For more understanding read ‘Blue Light’… ‘Arche’ book II, 2022.

Socrates (circa 470-399 BC) was a Pupil of Anaxagoras. Socrates questioned whether the earth was flat or round and as to whether the earth was the centre of the Universe.

Thus the ‘Flat Earth Belief’ was being challenged by the evolutionary thoughts of Philosophers, tabling questions, answers and new beliefs. Sadly, human scientific and technological progress was slow, for the next one thousand eight hundred years, due to the ignorant stupidity of Christianity and Islam that would reject the ideas that the earth was round and that the earth was not the centre of the Universe, because it disagreed with their religious beliefs, founded upon the incorrect teachings in the Christian Bible and the Islamic Qur’an.

Religions and Cults have a lot to answer for their fixed dogma false knowledge teachings. Even today in this early 21st Century, inferior thinking backward Christians and Muslims reject the ‘Theorem of Evolution’.

Others followed supporting affirmation that the earth was indeed round.

Beginning next with Plato (427-347 BC) a Pupil of Socrates, suggested that the earth was a hollow sphere. He also said that the sun, moon, planets and stars are also spheres.

The age which Plato grew up in rejected the idea of a flat earth. 

Plato founded in Athens ‘The Great School of Science’ thus the serious commitment to science was beginning.

Aristotle (384-322BC) a Pupil of Plato born in Stagira, declared that the earth was a sphere.

Alexander (356-323 BC) the not so Great, was a Pupil of Aristotle.

Author’s Note: There is nothing great about a ‘Totalitarian Conqueror’ that raids, pillages, rapes and kills the enemy in the name of expanding the dominion of the empire.

Aristarchus (c.310-c.230 BC) an Ancient Greek Astronomer and Mathematician lived on the Island of Samos. He was the first to formulate the ‘Heliocentric Theory’ a model which placed the sun at the centre of the then known Universe, with the Earth revolving around the sun.

Heliocentric means that the sun is at the centre and that such a system is one in which the planets revolve around a fixed sun. The Greek word ‘Helios’ means ‘Sun’.

Eratosthenes (276-194 BC) using mathematics with shadows estimated the earth’s circumference around 240 BC.

“Eratosthenes was the first man to measure the circumference of the Earth. He found that at noon on Midsummer Day in Syene (now Aswan) the sun shone directly down into a deep well, without casting any shadow. At the same time an upright rod at Alexandria, 5000 stadia due north, cast a shadow which showed the sun’s rays inclined to the vertical at an angle equal to a fiftieth of a complete circle. From this Eratosthenes deduced that the circumference of the Earth measured along the meridian through the two cities is 50 times 5000 = 250,000 stadia. The exact length of a stadium is unknown, but is usually assumed to be 157.7 metres, which yields the astonishingly precise value of 39,425 kilometres. The best modern estimate is 40,076 kilometres.

“Having provided man with an accurate idea of the size of his habitat, Eratosthenes also devised an improved geography.” (iii)

Vincent Cronin 1981

(iii) ‘The View from Planet Earth – Man Looks at The Cosmos’ By Vincent Cronin. Publisher: William Morrow and Company, Inc. New York. First Published in the United States in 1983. First read by Allan Ivarsson 1987. Great reading – Both Education and Entertainment.

Stadia was an ‘Ancient Greek unit of length/distance’.

Herodotus (c.484-425 B.C.) described as the ‘Father of History’ a title first bestowed by Roman Philosopher Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 B.C.) stated that one Stade (an anglicized word) was equal to 600 feet. However, this measurement standard varied by country of origin, hence the exact length of a stadium is unknown. Herodotus was tabled as the first known historian, because he became known to collect information and systematically, using critical analysis, arranged historical insight into a narrative sense of order.

Seleucus of Seleucia (c.190- c.150’s BC) [His lifespan is not known.] was a Hellenistic Chaldean Babylonian Astronomer and Philosopher. He was born on the Tigris River in Babylonia.

Seleucus was the first person to assume the Universe is Infinite.

Seleucus supported Aristarchus’s Heliocentric Theory that Earth rotates on its axis and revolves around the sun.

Seleucus was the first to correctly theorize that the moon was responsible for the tides. He did this by correlating the tides in the Indian Ocean with the position of the moon, identifying a causal connection through Earth’s Atmosphere from moon to sea.

Seleucus is known from the writings of Plutarch, Aetius, Strabo and Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi. (Refer about al-Razi, further along, down the track).

Hipparchus (190-120 BC) Born in Nicaea in Bithynia, now called…Iznik, Turkey; Died in Rhodes, Greece. [Also, spelled ‘Hipparchos].

Hipparchus was a Greek Astronomer, Geographer and Mathematician. He was the believed founder by some of ‘Trigonometry’ though the word ‘Trigonometry’ was not coined until 1595 by a German Mathematician named ‘Bartholomaeus Pitiscus’.

The word ‘Trigonometry’ is derived from the Greek words ‘Trigon’ and ‘Metron’…it means ‘measuring the sides of a triangle’. Some Indian students in the early 21st Century on the social media ‘Facebook’ have stated that they believed ‘Aryabhata’ coined the word ‘Trigonometry’-this is not true; go to ‘Aryabhata’ (476-550 A.D.) for more brief insight.

Others claim that the Ancient Egyptians are the people who invented trigonometry, which is often credited to Pythagoras, because it has been suggested that ‘Pythagorean Law’ was used in Ancient Egypt, long before the Greek Philosopher it has been alleged, ‘rediscovered it’. The Mesopotamians then used it.

It is not the purpose of this paper to debate the origins of ‘Trigonometry concepts’ that requires a far more historical detailed analysis of history, outside the scope of this book. But given the mathematical brilliance that existed in many Ancient Civilizations centuries before Christ, it makes sense to believe with confidence that the mathematical geometry methods of what later through exploration of triangles became known as ‘Trigonometry’ simply evolved through informative research and developments giving us gradually the genius of mathematics. Clearly many contributors, known and unknown, in several ‘Ancient Civilizations’ helped the foundation evolution of geometry and trigonometry. Without the ‘Ancients’ before the ‘Dark Ages’ of mindless religion took over for a period of backward thinking, we today in society would not have enjoyed the achievements in technology which we now take for granted. Science’s struggle to rise above the limited thinking of religion, finally lead us out of darkness towards the light of higher understanding; thus, we ascended gradually becoming more enlightened true to the dream of Gautama Buddha. Perceptive Einstein recognised the great potential of Buddhism as being more compatible with science and philosophy than any other creed. And Einstein in his wise vision by his quotes, saw the path of ‘Cosmicism’ evolving that which was founded by Allan Peter Ivarsson, the writer between 1984 & 2014.

Ptolemy wrote of Hipparchus as being his essential teacher, his predecessor that guided him the most. Ptolemy used the astronomical work of Hipparchus as a foundation guide to his own work, striving to expand knowledge.

Ptolemy described Hipparchus as being a great ‘Lover of Truth’ and as being a very industrious person. Many centuries later, Muhammad founder of Islam, chose a different opposing point of view. Instead of being a ‘Lover of Truth’ Muhammad taught ignorantly that the earth was flat, as recorded in the Koran, but worse he taught his followers the ‘Art of Deceit’ in preference to the ‘Love of Truth’. Thus, the expansion of science and the expansion of Islam evolved into conflict. Science chased truth, whilst Islam encouraged deceit. And that is the truth, whether people can emotionally handle it or not.

Hipparchus is credited with the first known layout presentation catalogue of stars. He developed theories for the sun and moon suggesting uniform circular motion.

A great step forward began for Astronomy, when Hipparchus measured the precession of the earth’s rotation axis. Hipparchus is credited with the discovery of the ‘Precession of the Equinoxes’ –a brilliant achievement. The precession period is now known to be about 26,000 years.

Astronomy describes this gradual shift, the Earth’s axis of preceding, i.e. ‘precession’ rotating like a ‘spinning top’. For those that know the ‘Constellations’ the Pole Star in the Northern Hemisphere 2014 is now near the star named Polaris. In 14,000 C.E. the star Vega in the constellation Lyra will be the northern pole guide and flashing backwards to 3,000 B.C.E. the North Celestial Pole was near the star Thuban, a star in the constellation of Draco.

Of course, ‘Paedophile Muhammad’ the claimed perfect prophet, did not know this and was not so perfect.

Hipparchus used Babylonian Astronomy and Greek Astronomy and was instrumental in evolving and unifying Astronomy as one subject, a synthesis that thereafter guided astronomical evolution to become a complete whole progressive science, which now in exploration knows no limits.

Hipparchus accepted the belief that the earth was the centre of the Solar System and did not form an improved ‘Planetary Theory’ about the cycle of the planets/sun system.

During a ‘Solar Eclipse’ that was a total eclipse at Syene and a partial eclipse at Alexandria; Hipparchus measured the distance from the earth to the moon. He used two observer’s information…one saw the complete sun blocked by the moon at Syene and at Alexandria the other saw one fifth of the sun’s disc being visible.

I don’t know how he did it, I am not a Mathematician, I am simply a ‘Cosmic Philosopher’ …but if you think about it, as good Mathematician/Astronomers today do understand…the Ancients many of them in Mathematics without telescopes, were mathematically cleverer than most people of today in the 20th/21st Century. Now that fact teaches us something…we humans need to lift our game and stop fighting each other and stop clinging to false dogma belief systems, and simply focus on a lifetime quest of upgrading our knowledge with open mind, in harmony with the freedom of enjoying life with family and friends.

It is interesting to note that ‘Eratosthenes’ worked out the circumference of the earth using the same geographic locations of Syene and Alexandria.

Posidonius (135-51 BC) Born in Apamea, Syria, Died in Rhodes, Greece. Sadly, a lot of his written records have been lost, however we do know from records by others and some fragments of his words, quotations, what he believed and identified.

Posidonius a ‘Greek Stoic Philosopher’ was a talented Polymath- Astronomer, Geographer, Historian, Politician and Teacher.

Posidonius believed the tide is caused by the moon as first tabled by Seleucus and believed like earlier Greeks that the Earth was not flat, but was in fact round. Thus, he used a different mathematical method to calculate the circumference of the earth than that used by Eratosthenes approximately 150 years earlier.

However, the circumference of the earth tabled by Posidonius was not accurate and yet it became the accepted mathematical measurement for the next 1,500 years. Eratosthenes later proved to be far more accurate in his measurement of the circumference of the earth, in fact very close to earth’s true circumference. For more detailed understanding by those that seek it… go to the study of Astronomy and its history link to the ‘Great Ancients’ that opened the door of our knowledge and gave us the insight that fixed dogma foolish religions too often reject. 

Posidonius coined the mathematical terms ‘Theorem’ and ‘Problem’. The word ‘Theorem’ evolved in meaning past its mathematical meaning and is now applied to the ‘Evolution Process’ which is no longer a theory, but is in fact a theorem.

A crater of the moon is named ‘Posidonius’ located in the ‘Rukl Zone 14 Map’ of the Moon. It was formed during the ‘Upper Imbrian Period.’ The ‘Posidonius’ crater position is Latitude: 31.89 N, Longitude: 29.96 E, Diameter: 100.75 km, Depth: 1.37 km.

Claudius Ptolemy (c. 87-c.170 AD/CE).

Greek: Klaudios Ptolemaios

Latin: Claudius Ptolemaeus

Experts speculate as to when Ptolemy was born and when he died. Hence, the above date range of his existence circa, represents the two furthest points of time that he lived.

[Not to be confused with Ptolemy I Soter (c.367-c. 282 BCE) Macedonian King of Egypt, founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. He was the biographer and friend of ‘Alexander the (not so) Great’.]

Born in Alexandria, Ptolemy was a Greco-Egyptian writer, a Mathematician, Astronomer, Geographer, Astrologer and even an epigrammatic author.

In his 13 books of the ‘Almagest’… Ptolemy tabled his ‘Geocentric System’ believing the earth must be immovable, fixed at the centre. He rejected what some earlier Philosophers suggested that the earth moves.

“Ptolemy’s astronomical work was enshrined in his great book ‘He mathematike syntaxis’ (“The Mathematical Collection”), which eventually became known as Ho megas astronomos (“The Great Astronomer”). During the 9th century, however, Arab astronomers used the Greek superlative Megiste to refer to the book. When the definite article al was prefixed to the term, its title then became known as the Almagest, the name still used today.” (iv)

(iv) http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/glossary/ptolemy.html

Ptolemaic Geocentric Cosmology starts absolutely with the belief that the earth is stationary and is the centre of the universe. For the next 1300 years, this locked belief became fixed dogma for all ‘Ancient Societies’ north and south of Alexandria. They believed that the sun, moon, planets and stars all travelled around a perfect path circle. And ‘Ptolemy’s Falling Bodies Belief’ was used as reasoning of why it seemed true.

For over 1300 years to follow, the Ptolemaic model survived as the ‘Belief System Guide’ before it was seriously challenged and superseded by the Copernicus Heliocentric model in the 16th Century further expanded by Galileo and Kepler’s ‘Laws of Planetary Motion’.

Ptolemy inadvertently triggered the creation of a ‘Fixed Dogma Mentality’ locked into place by the blind thinking Christian and Islamic Belief Systems. These two proselytizing creeds became obsessed and resistant to change.

Consequently, Copernicus and Galileo were both persecuted by the Roman Catholic Church for daring to say… “No-that is not true and why?”

The Abrahamic Creeds have a lot to answer for their ignorant blind thinking behaviour, which still exists today in the early 21st Century.

During the next 1300 years after the ‘Ptolemaic Mistake’ cultures like Christianity and Islam and other so-called ‘Barbarian Belief Systems’ like the Vikings, believed the earth was flat and was the centre of the Universe. Only some educated Christian Scholars believed the earth was round, located as the centre of the universe. The average Christian could not read… all knowledge and confused beliefs, were passed around by word of mouth.

Even today inferior thinking backward 7th Century mentality Muslim Clerics, still claim that the earth is flat, because the perfect infallible Qur’an says it is flat; and it is ‘Blasphemy’ punishable by death to dispute the Koran.

In summary, Ptolemy is known for his three-key works…

1 Almagest – Astronomy & Geometry.

2 Tetrabiblos- Astrology.

3 Geography including Atlas- 8 volumes which became an important guide right up until around 1775. Despite its often-serious errors there was nothing better. Even Christopher Columbus (c.1451-1506 CE), whom accidently discovered America in 1492, used the Ptolemy Atlas in his belief that he could reach Asia by travelling Westward. The problem was that a big continent land mass previously not known to exist, blocked his ‘Go West to Asia Plans’. [And this lack of knowledge ruled Europe and the Middle East, even though the Vikings centuries earlier were the first known discoverers of North America.]

Columbus used Ptolemy’s smaller earth circumference of 18,000 miles rejecting Eratosthenes very closely near accurate circumference measurement of 25,000 miles.

Compare the earth’s circumference estimate by… Eratosthenes… (250,000 Stadia) …Posidonius… (240,000 Stadia) …Ptolemy… (180,000 Stadia).

Ancient Greeks and a few Ancient Roman Scholars knew the earth was round, but society after the Ancient Greek Age, wandered off course into more erroneous thinking, sliding further backwards into fixed dogma lack of dynamic logic. Thus, religion became locked back into the belief in a ‘Flat Earth’ centre of the Universe mentality.

The final volume of Ptolemy’s Geography books was an Atlas based upon ‘Merchant Travellers’ information that was not yet capable of being accurate due to the Merchant’s inability to accurately measure longitude.

Ptolemy believed the earth was round, but his circumference as indicated earlier fell short of reality. The problem that compounded the ignorance of different cultures was that the works of Ptolemy was lost for over a thousand years, and it was not rediscovered and translated into Latin for others to read, until the 15th Century. Hence, the obsession of believing in a ‘Flat Earth’ continued by Christians and Muhammad, other Muslims and other societies, refusing to recognise the truth.

For more detailed insight, I recommend that you read History of Astronomy and Philosophy books, which specialise in these important insights.

Aryabhata (476-550 C.E.) Spelt by Arabs as ‘Arjabahr’. He was often called ‘Aryabhata the Elder’ by Hindu and Buddhists. He was an Indian Hindu Astronomer and Mathematician- very talented. He used Arithmetic, Algebra, plane Trigonometry and spherical Geometry in his astronomical computations.

He was a lot cleverer than I am, but then since I am not a Mathematician, a subject I foolishly neglected, except for basic mental arithmetic, I am easy to beat by any person with mathematic skills. I specialise in ‘Project Management’ and ‘Cosmic Philosophy’ and have only two regrets that I did not make more effort in my youth to master mathematics and more languages.

In his works titled ‘Aryabhatiya’ the ‘Gola’ chapter meaning ‘The Sphere’ Aryabhata went to great lengths to explain the celestial relationship of earth and the cosmos. Clearly, he did not believe that the earth was flat. This belief must have upset Muslims when they invaded India centuries later during the period of the 12th to 16th Centuries. [Though Islam did make some inroads invasion into Pakistan and Afghanistan during the 8th Century.] The invasion of India by Muslims left a tragic history for countless millions of Hindus, Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs, were slaughtered by ‘Jihad Muslims’.

Certainly, the goat herder ‘Paedophile Muhammad’ the founder of Islam, being the claimed perfect prophet that Muslims believe is the true ‘Messenger of Allah’, did believe that the earth was flat, when other smarter Astronomers and Mathematicians centuries earlier had identified that the earth was round. Allah sure handed down the wrong message to Muhammad. But the truth is that Muhammad lied and invented the Koran to take control of the Arabs. Allah did not table the Koran, for the truth of the matter is that if a God like Allah was wise and all knowing, he would never have made such a stupid mistake as to claim the earth was flat, spread out like a carpet. In fact, if Allah is truly a caring God, he would never have approved of the beheading violence and the authorised cruelty process instruction tabled in the Qur’an by evil Muhammad, a specialist in deceit and treachery.

Muhammad not being perfect, far from it, was obviously not an educated student of astronomy and mathematics, he was indeed very ignorant of such subjects, which is why the Koran is riddled with false knowledge mistakes. This fact alone proves that the Koran was dictated by Muhammad and not by Allah.

If Allah does exist, which is highly unlikely, Allah believed by some, to originally have been a # Moon-God, clearly thought that Muhammad was not worthy of being told the truth that the earth was a sphere, because Allah quickly recognised that Muhammad was too ignorant and stupid to comprehend an explanation by Allah, and no doubt if Allah exists being wise and all knowing, he would have also recognised that Muhammad did not have ‘Emotional Intelligence’ being inclined to rise into fits of violent rage, like a spoilt brat, when he could not have his wicked way. This existent fact of Muhammad’s vain very self-centred nature, is evident by his kill instructions in the Qur’an, which commands all Muslims to behead any person that disagrees with the instructions of Muhammad, that he pretended came from Allah.

Muhammad attacked Mecca in 630 C.E. eight years after he was tossed out of Mecca because he resented being rejected by the multicultural people of Mecca.

It has been claimed by Indian Students that Aryabhata was the first person to say the earth is spherical and that it revolves around the sun. That is probably true in India, but unknown to them that believe this thought, the Ancient Greeks had centuries earlier identified that the earth was not flat and was indeed almost round, not perfect and revolved around the sun.

Aryabhata correctly identified the luminosity of the moon and planets as the consequence of reflected sunlight.

Aryabhata stated that the earth rotates on its axis daily. [Ancient Greek Aristarchus (c.310-c.230 BC) was the first to table that the earth rotates on its axis.] He rejected the idea existent at the time in India that the sky rotated. He insisted that the movement of the stars was in fact a relative motion caused by the rotation of the earth. This observation was tabled several decades before Muhammad invented the false knowledge Koran, which as tabled earlier, said the earth was flat.

It has been said that Aryabhata had a profound influence on the development of Islamic Astronomy. A subject that did not exist in the mind of Muhammad during his life (c.570-632 C.E.)

Muhammad was more interested in rape, murder, slavery, pillaging and paedophilia child brides than in astronomy.

# Author’s Note: The word ‘Allah’ is a synonym of the word God. But that does not mean that the character of the Muslim God, the Christian God and the Jewish God are all the same character God. The personality and teachings of all these three Gods are different in many ways, and are not the same character. It should be noted… that all Gods including Allah started out as pagan gods and gods of nature, long before the birth of worshipping only one God. This worship of one God character, was started by, it is often believed, to have been launched by Judaism, but that is not necessarily so… it is probable that the idea started much earlier, before Judaism evolved, past the beginning of the ‘Ten Commandments’.

The word ‘Allah’ clearly existed centuries before the creation of Islamic Arabia. Muslims do not worship a Moon-God. It was once believed in pre-ancient times that a Moon-God married a Sun Goddess and the Stars were his daughters. We can’t criticise early man’s entertaining mythology in different cultures, because simply, science did not truly exist. And it is the nature and character of humans to want to know…   … “Why? How? When?”

But we can absolutely, justifiably reject and criticise modern religions, which are all founded upon ridiculous untrue ideas, because accurate proven path, forever evolving science does exist, and provable reality now exists that a God/Allah creator does not exist. Provable did I say? Yes, if we truly open our minds, our eyes, our hearing, our instinctive senses, the reality is verifiable, everywhere that a God Creator does not exist.

Our imaginary God vanished and lost its credibility, through the genuine evolution of science and opened the door to the evolution of cosmic philosophy, expanding the path of enlightenment, rising through ascension process into a higher level of understanding, which knows no limits, no end, living true to the spirit of infinity.

The age of religion is coming to an end, the end of faith is evolving, a new beginning is expanding, to stop the habit of war; freedom must be protected in speech and choice, the irreligious must be encouraged to learn new higher ways of thinking. The end of religion is not the beginning of expanding atheism, it is the dawn of rising ‘Cosmicism’, the new path towards eternal peace for all that have the open-minded courage to explore its wisdom, and enjoy its challenges.

The new age of love and peace belongs to those whom walk away from religions, and cults and dare to care, in a way never lived before… the cosmic way of true freedom.

Renaissance Period (c.1300 A.D. – c.1700 A.D.)

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543 C.E.) A Polish Mathematician and Astronomer born in Torun, Poland during the Renaissance Period of the 14th to 18th Century. Copernicus tabled a preliminary step, which was the beginning of encouraging new ideas to evolve, leading towards a scientific revolution for the world. His ideas much to the chagrin of ignorant Christianity, upset a lot of religious fanatics locked into fixed dogma mindset, incapable of thinking outside the square, with open mind and dynamic reasoning. Suffering from ‘Mortification Syndrome’, Christianity void of ‘Emotional Intelligence’, reacted with dark anger and consequently the inferior thinking ‘Roman Catholic Church’ banned the scientific theory writings of Copernicus shortly after his death in 1543. His book ‘De revolutionibus orbium coelestium’ published just before his death after a stroke, remained on the deemed heretical dictatorship list of forbidden reading materials for nearly 300 years. Such is the stupidity of religious backward mentality, which still exists even today, during the early 21st Century. Christian, Jewish and Islamic fools still reject the ‘Evolution Theorem’.

Copernicus upset the apple cart of fixed dogma religious thinking, because he rejected the idea believed by religion that the earth was the centre of the universe. Copernicus put the sun at the centre of the Universe stating that the earth revolved around the sun. Before publication of his ‘Revolutions’ book in 1543, Copernicus wrote an essay sometime between 1508 and 1514 known as the ‘Commentariolus’ which tabled his new ‘Heliocentric Universe’- a Cosmological idea which was not really a new idea, because Aristarchus (c.310-c.230 BC) had tabled a previous ‘Heliocentric Universe’ but his simple physical model, did not use the physics and mathematics concepts that were explored and explained by Copernicus.

Copernicus believed that the principles of Ptolemy’s System were incorrect, which inspired Nicolaus to write his essay and later manuscript for a book publication.

Nicolaus Copernicus was the first person in astronomical history to create a newly explained Universe System using Mathematics and Physics with Cosmology.

As stated earlier in brief words, the following quote expands insight…

“Though his theory was viewed as revolutionary and met with some controversy, Copernicus was not the first astronomer to propose such a theory; centuries prior, in 270 B.C., ancient Greek astronomer Aristarchus of Samos had identified the sun as the solar system’s central unit. Aristarchus’s ideas were quickly dismissed, however, because Ptolemy’s theories were far more eagerly accepted by the influential Roman Catholic Church, which adamantly supported the earth-based solar system theory. Still, Copernicus’s heliocentric solar system proved to be more detailed and accurate than Aristarchus’s, including a more efficient formula for calculating planetary positions throughout the year.” (v)

“Religious leader Martin Luther voiced his opposition to the heliocentric solar system model. His underling, Lutheran minister Andreas Osiander, quickly followed suit, saying of Copernicus, “This fool wants to turn the whole art of astronomy upside down.” (v)

“Copernicus became a symbol of the brave scientist standing alone, defending his theories against the common beliefs of his time.” (v)

(v) http://www.biography.com/people/nicolaus-copernicus-256984#heliocentric-solar-system

As it turned out Martin Luther, his followers, including Andreas Osiander and the Roman Catholic Church were proved to be the fools. They died ignorant not recognising their own stupidity.

Bartholomaeus Pitiscus (1561-1613) a German Mathematician specialist in Trigonometry, also an enthusiastic Astronomer and a Calvinist Theologian whom rejected the Roman Catholic Church. He died at the short life age of 51 years & ten months in Heidelberg, Germany.

Born in Grunberg, Silesia now known as Zielona Gora in Poland, Pitiscus is best remembered for coining the name ‘Trigonometry’ and for his very significant, excellent published work, contributing to the evolution of mankind’s mathematical knowledge,  thereby upgrading and developing the mathematics of trigonometry to a higher standard of accuracy, creating an advanced understanding in an essential branch of Mathematics, which is equally as important as Algebra to science and the evolution of astronomy.

Pitiscus was appointed Professor of Mathematics on April 8th, 1603 at the University of Heidelberg. He referenced Georg Joachim Rheticus (1514-1574) ‘Trigonometric Tables’ which contained several errors and he focused on establishing accuracy to ensure credibility existed. After upgrading the important Rheticus tables, Pitiscus moved forward and published in 1613 C.E. his ‘Thesaurus Mathematicus’.

Pitiscus originally came to fame through his publication in 1595 of a book in Latin with the master title of ‘Trigonmetria’ that was divided into three section subjects and each section into book specialisations. The full Latin name and the history of interfaced subjects can be found in historical records, for those that wish to pursue this important ‘Mathematic History’ further. This amazing work was translated into English in 1614 by Ralph Hanson and into French in 1619 thus spreading the knowledge of trigonometry to a wider enthusiastic reading circle of Mathematicians, Astronomers, Architects and Scientists.

It is understood that the accuracy of the ‘Rheticus Tables’ after some corrective improvement by Pitiscus were used with reliable confidence up into the early 20th Century. It is interesting to note that Rheticus was a sole pupil of Nicolaus Copernicus.

And it is sad to note, that Rheticus was found guilty of the crime of Sodomy in 1552 and exiled from Leipzig for 101 years. As to whether the found guilty charge was accurate or not, remains a historical question, since in the years before the development of forensic evidence in the 20th Century, evidence was not of a high standard in accuracy and too often innocent people were falsely accused and found guilty of a crime they did not commit. It seems strangely odd that a man like Rheticus with such a good academic performance history would cross the line into the dark side and action one unacceptable crime, once only in his life. Something in this history does not seem true. A mystery we shall never know the answer to. 

Of course, the definition of sodomy was a lot wider, in previous centuries, than it is today in this 21st Century. Moral Law keeps shifting its values, up and down, on and off. Homosexuality and even oral and anal sex between a man and a woman was once, also deemed as being sodomy, and still is defined as such, amongst fanatical Christians, Jews and Muslims. The Old Testament and the Torah table cruel punishments for Sodomy. And ‘Sharia Law’ enforces the death penalty for all Gays.

Personally, I believe anal sex is disgraceful behaviour, an unnatural physical abuse of the body, too often practiced, not only by Gays, but also by some heterosexuals, man and woman.

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) an Italian Physicist, Mathematician, Engineer, Astronomer and Philosopher born in Pisa, Italy was bullied and persecuted by the Roman Christian Catholic Church; he proved that Christianity was wrong in their beliefs about the Universe.

Even now during the early 21st Century and back in the 20th Century and further back to the time of the 19th Century, Christian fools obsessed with belief in ‘Creationism’ still reject Darwin’s theory of evolution. Which is now a theorem- a proven path reality. Many even believe, despite the absolute proof… that Dinosaurs never existed. Such are those backward Christians incapable of thinking outside the square. And such are those fool Muslims that reject the Evolution Theorem. And worse many cannot yet comprehend, including Muslim Clerics that the earth is not flat and that the Qur’an is indeed a very imperfect fallible book, just like the Torah and the Bible are fallible imperfect books. If people are offended by such statements that only serves to prove that they are intellectually immature.

Christians that reject the existence of ‘Evolution and Chaos Process’ are saying that Muslims are correct in rejection of the existence of ‘Evolution’. Thus, these naïve backward thinking Christians, do support the existence of Islam and inadvertently Islam’s ultimate objective to wipe out all Christians and Jews as instructed in the Qur’an.

Brilliant hard-working Galileo was the man that laid the foundation exploration process of ‘Modern Astronomy’. His commitment and persistent determination opened the door with such conviction that the truth could never ever be hidden again.

Galileo bored with University, eventually left the University of Pisa without a degree. His history of scientific discoveries proved that people that think outside the square, are smarter than clever people with university degrees that are locked into fixed dogma text training.

“Men are like wine flasks,” he once said to a group of students.” …look at…. bottles with the handsome labels. When you taste them, they are full of air or perfume or rouge. These are bottles fit only to pee into!” (vi)

(vi) http://inventors.about.com/od/gstartinventors/a/Galileo_Galilei.htm

Galileo proved beyond a shadow of a doubt that the earth was not the centre of the Universe. He made a strong telescope to look at the stars and planets after he heard about a simple less powerful telescope, which had been built by Dutch eyeglass makers. The Dutch eyeglass makers had by their basic creation, inspired the door of science in Astronomy to be opened, which would never ever be closed again.

Notice, despite many false knowledge phony claims by Muslims, it was not a Muslim that invented the telescope. Islam’s deceitful attempt to rewrite untrue history selling the glory of Muslim discoveries and inventions which never happened, must be stopped!

With his telescope, Galileo discovered many things about the planets, moons and sun. For more detailed understanding about his discoveries and his significant contribution to the evolution of science, it is recommended that everyone reads about Galileo history and reads Astronomy books. Most people do not need to be ‘Astronomy Experts’ that skill belongs to the committed Astronomers. A good overview understanding is what every person should share and possess. It is also wise to try in overview to learn about the entire history of the evolution of Astronomy, Cosmology and associated Physics, from the Ancient Greeks to Albert Einstein, Stephen Hawking, and Paul Davies and into the 21st Century and beyond.

“Galileo was the first to use a telescope for the purpose of astronomy in 1609Hans Lipperhey, a German spectacle maker, is generally credited as the inventor of the telescope, as his patent application is dated the earliest, on the 25th of September 1608.” (vii)

(vii) http://www.universetoday.com/41889/who-invented-the-telescope/

Galileo proved that the beliefs of the ‘Christian Catholic Church’ was wrong. He didn’t realise it, but he also absolutely proved that the ‘Flat Earth’ belief in the Koran that was claimed by Muhammad to be the words of Allah, was wrong. It was ‘Paedophile Muhammad’ that believed the earth was flat and that fact proves that Muhammad absolutely lied, when he claimed that Allah had dictated the Qur’an.

After 1604 Galileo started to express openly his support of the Copernicus ‘Heliocentric Universe’ that the earth and planets revolved around the sun.

I personally all of my life since a teenager in the 1960’s have been fascinated with Astronomy, Pre-History, Ancient History, Modern History, Geology, Geography, Nature, Philosophy and ‘Belief Systems’. As I grew older, I added the learning, of Trucking, Sales/Marketing/Dealing- Hard Sell/Soft Sell, ‘World Class ‘A’ Manufacturing’ and ‘Gaia Management’, Pragmatism and ‘Emotional Intelligence’ to my insight.

Without an overview understanding, how can we come to know the truth about reality? To die and not know in overview, is stupid and a waste of existence.

The inferior thinking backward ‘Dark Christian Inquisition’ placed Galileo under house arrest for ‘Heresy’ because he dared table the significant truth.

The below extracts say it well and is a must read, for more insight it is recommended that the researcher reads the sources…

Extract One: “In 1613, he published his observations of sunspots, which further refuted Aristotelian doctrine that the sun was perfect. That same year, Galileo wrote a letter to a student to explain how Copernican theory did not contradict Biblical passages, stating that scripture was written from an earthly perspective and implied that science provided a different, more accurate perspective. The letter was made public and Church Inquisition consultants pronounced Copernican theory heretical. In 1616, Galileo was ordered not to “hold, teach, or defend in any manner” the Copernican theory regarding the motion of the earth. Galileo obeyed the order for seven years, partly to make life easier and partly because he was a devoted Catholic.” (viii)

A.I. comments: This ‘Totalitarian’ standover tactic by Christianity over great honest men of science like Copernicus and Galileo and centuries later Darwin, proved that Christianity cannot be trusted with the ‘Flame of Freedom’ and would with opportunity, extinguish the right of the individual to ‘Freedom of Speech’ and ‘Freedom of Choice’. This fact is becoming evident once again in the early 21st Century as many persons, including Christians and Muslims are striving to impose ‘Blasphemy Law’ in all Western Nations.

Extract Two: “In 1632, Galileo published the Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, a discussion among three people: one who supports Copernicus’ heliocentric theory of the universe, one who argues against it, and one who is impartial. Though Galileo claimed Dialogues was neutral, it was clearly not. The advocate of Aristotelian # belief comes across as the simpleton, getting caught in his own arguments.” (viii)

# A.I. comments: Recap: The Universe of Aristotle & Ptolemy had the fixed stationary earth as the centre of the motion process. And the Roman Church locked into this belief and refused to recognise the scientific truth, which Copernicus correctly tabled, which was supported in agreement by Galileo.

Church reaction against the book was swift, and Galileo was summoned to Rome. The Inquisition proceedings lasted from September 1632 to July 1633. During most of this time, Galileo was treated with respect and never imprisoned. However, in a final attempt to break him, Galileo was threatened with torture, and he finally admitted he had supported Copernican theory, but no longer believed, but privately he held that his statements were correct. He was convicted of heresy and spent his remaining years under house arrest. Though ordered not to have any visitors nor have any of his works printed outside of Italy, he ignored both. In 1634, a French translation of his study of forces and their effects on matter was published, and a year later, copies of the Dialogue were published in Holland. While under house arrest, Galileo wrote Two New Sciences, a summary of his life’s work on the science of motion and strength of materials. It was printed in Holland in 1638. By this time, he had become blind and in ill health.” (viii)

A.I. comments: Galileo proved to be a dedicated defiant very brave man, whom quietly continued his work of tabling the truth as he believed and understood it. Meanwhile the evil ‘Christian Inquisition’ continued its insidious harassment of others for another four centuries. I discovered between 2003 & 2010 that the harassment and abuse of unbelievers like myself was still prevalent, true to the spirit of the ‘Christian Inquisition’ that clung constantly to the use of bully words like Apostasy, Blasphemy and Heresy to intimidate any person that criticised or rejected Christianity. Islamic Doctrine armed with more inclined violent aggression, likewise uses these three A.B.H. words to bully unbelievers.

“Galileo died in Arcetri, near Florence, Italy, on January 8, 1642, after suffering from a fever and heart palpitations. But in time, the Church couldn’t deny the truth in science. In 1758, it lifted the ban on most works supporting Copernican theory, and by 1835 dropped its opposition to heliocentrism altogether.” (viii)

In the 20th century, several popes acknowledged the great work of Galileo, and in 1992, Pope John Paul II expressed regret about how the Galileo affair was handled. Galileo’s contribution to our understanding of the universe was significant not only in his discoveries, but in the methods, he developed and the use of mathematics to prove them. He played a major role in the scientific revolution and, deservedly so, earned the moniker “The Father of Modern Science.” (viii)

(viii) http://www.biography.com/people/galileo-9305220#synopsis

Thus, Intelligent Mankind has known for over two thousand years that earth was a sphere and this progress knowledge was suppressed and rejected by the ignorant stupidity of ‘God Creator Believers’ locked into false knowledge fixed dogma beliefs that rejected open mind, rejected science evidence and rejected the great potential for progress. If it wasn’t for the ignorant stupidity of Christianity and Islam, humankind would be further ahead in knowledge and technology and no doubt would now be living in small population, on Mars and the Moon, despite gravity concern issues. All the countless millions of lives lost in religious war over the centuries, would have survived, if these two Abrahamic Creeds had never existed. Religion and Cults have a lot to answer for their crimes against Humanity. But having said that Judaism is also accountable for its history of violent moments and for the original creation of ‘Satanic Verses’.

After all this harassment and abuse by Christianity and Islam over the centuries, in the name of screaming ‘Blasphemy’ the bully tactics continue, even now in 2014 C.E. Christians and Muslims refuse to recognise the existent reality truth of ‘Evolution Chaos Process’, and are not yet smart enough to see that the existent science truth of evolutions role in life, does not in any way collide with ‘Creationism Beliefs’ except in the dark thinking of limited ignorant minds. But that is the way of fixed dogma –it is not capable of thinking outside the square.

Albert Einstein was right when he suggested that Buddhism was more compatible with science than the Abrahamic Creeds. Unfortunately, victims of ‘Totalitarianism’ never lived long enough to enjoy the ‘Liberty’ of sharing their knowledge with others void of being harassed, bullied and abused by the tyranny of religious fanaticism.

Once again Christians were forced to recognise that Copernicus and Galileo were right, and yet these same idiot Christians and Muslims still denounce Charles Darwin a Christian, for his theory of ‘Evolution’. It seems inferior thinking ‘True Christians’ never learn from past historical bad behaviour, and it is clear by early 21st Century trends that ‘True Muslims’ are even more stupid, refusing to recognise proven path truth, which collides with Qur’anic instructions. For reasons that defy intelligent understanding, we are surrounded by ignorant religious fools with nothing between the ears but sawdust.

Isaac Newton (1643-1727 AD) first proposed that the earth was not perfectly round. He called the Earth’s shape as ‘Oblate Spheroid’ being squashed at the Poles and swollen at the Equator. In other words, the earth is flattened at the Poles and bulges at the Equator.

However even that description is not a perfect ‘Oblate Spheroid’ because ‘Gravitational Pull’ creates bumps around the globe, denying the existence of a perfect curve. Despite all this proven path facts, Muslim Clerics are still claiming that the earth is flat,because the perfect infallible Koran says that the earth is flat and it is Blasphemy to criticise or reject the Koran, such is the ignorance of Muslims that claim the Koran is perfect.

Allan Ivarsson 2022

Founder, director, chairman of ‘things to come’ called ‘Cosmicism’. The way of ‘Blue Light Cosmic Philosophy’, the way of ‘Cosmic Libertarianism’ which uses the most advanced intelligence in the Universe called ‘Philosophical Intelligence’.

Ps. The source of this history overview article was published in my Book ‘Flat Earth’ Published on the 27th September 2017.

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